• On Chicago and policing in Chicago:

ACLU, Illinois Division. Secret Detention by the Chicago Police. Free Press, 1959.

Adler, Jeffrey. First in Crime, Deepest in Dirt: Homicide in Chicago, 1875-1920. Harvard University Press, 2006.

Amnesty International. Allegations of Police Torture in Chicago, Illinois. 1990.

Chicago Commission on Race Relations, The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot. University of Chicago Press, 1921.

Conroy, John. Unspeakable Acts, Ordinary People: The Dynamics of Torture. University of California Press, 2000.

Dale, Elizabeth. The Chicago Trunk Mystery. NIU Press, 2011.

Dale, Elizabeth. Robert Nixon and Police Torture in Chicago, 1871-1971. NIU Press, 2016.

Drake, St. Clair and Horace R. Cayton, Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1945.

Flood, Dawn Rae. Rape in Chicago: Race, Myth and the Courts. University of Illinois Press, 2012.

Illinois Association for Criminal Justice in Chicago and Chicago Crime Commission, The Illinois Crime Survey. Blakely Publishing Company, 1929.

Lesly, Michael. Murder City: The Bloody History of Chicago in the Twenties. W.W. Norton, 2007.

Lindberg, Richard C. To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal, 1855-1960. Southern Illinois University Press, 1998.

Mitrani, Sam. The Rise of the Chicago Police Department: Class and Conflict, 1850-1895. University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Storch, Randi. Red Chicago: American Communism and its Grassroots, 1928-1935. University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Wickersham Commission [National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement]. Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931.

  • On policing and torture:

Alder, Ken. The Lie Detectors: A History of an American Obsession. Free Press, 2007.

Balko, Radley. Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America’s Police Forces. PublicAffairs, 2013.

Cohen, Stanley. States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocity and Suffering.PolityPress, 2001.

Cole, Simon A. Suspect Identities: A History of Fingerprinting and Criminal Identification. Harvard University Press, 2001.

Dale, Elizabeth. Criminal Justice in the United States, 1789-1939. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Friedman, Lawrence M. Crime and Punishment in American History. Basic Books, 1994.

Huggins, Martha K., Mika Haritos-Fatouros, and Philip G Zimbardo, Violence Workers: Police Torturers and Murders Reconstruct Brazilian Atrocities.  University of California Press, 2002.

Johnson, Marilynn S. Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City. Beacon Press, 2003.

Langbein, John H. Torture and the Law of Proof: Europe and England in the Ancien Regime. University of Chicago Press, 1976, 2006.

Leo, Richard A. Police Interrogation and American Justice. Harvard University Press, 2008.

Lokaneeta, Jinee. Transnational Torture: Law, Violence, and State Power in the United States and India. New York University Press, 2011.

Martschukat, Jurgen, and Silvan Nidermeier, eds. Violence and Visibility in Modern History. Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

McCoy, Alfred W. Policing America’s Empire: The United States, The Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State. University of Wisconsin Press, 2009.

Miller, Seumas, “Torture”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) URL:

Monkkonen, Eric. Police in Urban America, 1860-1920. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Parry, John. Understanding Torture: Law, Violence, and Political Identity. University of Michigan Press, 2010.

Rejali, Darius. Torture and Democracy. Princeton University Press, 2007.

Simon, Jonathan. Governing Through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Skolnick, Jerome and James J. Fyfe. Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York: The Free Press, 1993.

Stuntz, William. The Collapse of American Criminal Justice. Harvard University Press, 2011.

Thomas, George C. and Richard A. Leo, Confessions of Guilt: From Torture to Miranda and Beyond. Oxford University Press, 2012.

Schulz, William. Editor, The Phenomenon of Torture: Readings and Commentary. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Wickersham Commission [National Commission on Law Observance and Law Enforcement]. Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement. Government Printing Office, 1931.


Bandes, Susan. “Patterns of Injustice: Police Brutality in the Courts.” Buffalo Law Review 47 (1999): 1275.

Chanbonpin, Kim D. “Truth Stories: Credibility Determinations at the Illinois Torture Inquiry and Relief Commission.” Loyola University Chicago Law Journal 4 (2014)” 1085.

Chevigny, Paul. “Changing Control of Police Violence in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo Brazil.” In Otwin Marenin, ed. Policing Change, Changing Police: International Perspectives. Garland, 1996.

Futterman, Craig, H. Mellissa Mather, and Melanie Miles. “The Use of Statistical Evidence in Police Supervisory and Disciplinary Practices: The Chicago Police Department’s Broken System.” In Civil Rights Litigation and Attorney Fee Annual Handbook. Steven Salesman, ed. Thomson Reuters, 2007.

Leo, Richard and Richard Ofshe. “The Consequences of False Confessions: Deprivations of Liberty and Miscarriages of Justice in the Age of Psychological Interrogations.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 88 (1998): 429.

Strange, Carolyn. “The Shock of Torture: A Historiographical Challenge.” History Workshop Journal 61 (2006): 135.


Chicago Torture Justice Memorials.

Illinois Torture Inquiry and Relief Commission.

Invisible Institute. Citizens Police Data Project.

Pozen Family Center for Human Rights: Chicago Police Torture Archive.

Quaker Initiative to End Torture.